Dark spots or brown blemishes are caused by the production of excess melanin (the pigment that gives skin its natural colour), which builds up on the surface of the skin as result of sun damage, skin trauma or hormonal irregularities.
In order to remove these dead skin cells exfoliation is important as is the use of ingredients which inhibit the production of excess melanin.
A rough or bumpy skin texture can be the result of many things; age, genetics, enlarged pores, or an irregular skincare routine. Not much that we can do about genetics, however, as we age dead skin cells accumulate due to our skin turnover slowing down which results in a dry, rough complexion. This means that your other skincare or foundation cannot be applied evenly. It also affects the way that light is reflects off your skin. In order to smooth the skin, it is important to remove these dead skin cells, minimize pores and reduce fine lines and the best way to do this is through regular exfoliation.
Facial redness is often caused by inflammation.
For acne related redness it is important to exfoliate the skin and unclog pores. It is essential to keep the skin well hydrated and prevent it from drying out, which could cause more redness.
For dry skin related redness, which can become damaged, it is again important to exfoliate and remove the dead skin cells, and to keep the skin well hydrated which will improve the skin’s barrier function.